In recent years diode lasers, which are excellent in terms of cost performance, are now available on the market as a new type of oscillator and are expected to bring about a new age in laser technology. Two current problems with these lasers, however, are the lack of sufficient output and the difficulty in improving the focusing the beam, which is why it has not been easy to apply them to the machining of metal parts in the past.
On the other hand, plastics can be joined with low energy because they have a lower melting point than metal and the rate of absorption of the laser is easy to control. Moreover, because the high degree of freedom in molding plastic parts results in many complex shapes that need to be welded, Toyota is looking into the use of diode lasers to weld plastic parts.
This article will introduce the problems of plastics welding and the methods to solve them referring to actual examples. Lean management-the journey from toyota to healthcare. The evolution of production systems is tightly linked to the story of Toyota Motor Company TMC that has its roots around The term "lean" was coined in following the exploration of the Toyota model that led to the "transference" thesis sustaining the concept that manufacturing problems and technologies are universal problems faced by management and that these concepts can be emulated in non-Japanese enterprises.
Lean is a multi-faceted concept and requires organizations to exert effort along several dimensions simultaneously; some consider a successful implementation either achieving major strategic components of lean, implementing practices to support operational aspects, or providing evidence that the improvements are sustainable in the long term.
The article explores challenges and opportunities faced by organizations that intend incorporating lean management principles and presents the specific context of the healthcare industry. Finally, the concepts of "essential few" and customer value are illustrated through a simple example of process change following lean principles, which was implemented in a dental school in the United States.
Toyota 's inspection system for vehicular emissions at assembly lines. In order that all Toyota production vehicles may satisfy the emission requirements and be free from possible defects such as catalytic converter damage, a system called ECAS, which allows us to assure satisfactory basic emission performance levels has been developed and put into actual use at assembly lines. In the Short Cycle Test the up-stream emissions of the vehicle, tracing Toyota 's unique short cyclic mode on a chassis dynamometer, are continuously measured.
Based on the emission levels during each mode and the total emission level obtained from the above test we can diagnose, not only the emission control systems of a vehicle and its engine conditions such as valve clearance maladjustment and carburetor defects, but also the emission characteristics of this vehicle. PubMed Central. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a Pitot tube installed at the exit of the exhaust.
The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the acquisition frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. This car is an example of recent automotive technology to reach the market dedicated to reduce emissions and therefore pressing the need of low detection techniques.
Also, a fast reduction of NO emission to very low values is observed after cold ignition, giving rise to. The effectiveness of automatic belts in reducing fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas. Toyota Cressidas have had motor driven automatic belts since This paper compares fatality rates in Toyota Cressidas with those in the similar Nissan Maximas which are equipped with three-point manual belts using the latest data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System.
After making adjustments for differences in the average ages of front seat occupants of the two fleets, the Toyotas have a fatality rate that is about three-quarters that of the Nissans. This effectiveness estimate is consistent with earlier estimates of automatic belt effectiveness. Toyota also stated that there will Application of the Toyota Production System improves core laboratory operations. A 4-month, consultant-driven process removed waste, led to a physical reset of the space to match the work flow, and developed a work cell for our random access analyzers.
In addition, visual controls, single piece flow, standard work, and "5S" were instituted. The viability of this approach is demonstrated by sustained gains and further PDCA Plan, Do, Check, Act improvements during the 4 years after completion of the project. Toyota production system quality improvement initiative improves perioperative antibiotic therapy. To assess the role of a Toyota production system TPS quality improvement QI intervention on appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic therapy and in length of hospital stay LOS among surgical patients.
Pre-post quasi-experimental study using local and national retrospective cohorts. We used TPS methods to implement a multifaceted intervention to reduce nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections on a Veterans Affairs surgical unit, which led to a QI intervention targeting appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis.
Appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy was defined as selection of the recommended antibiotic agents for a duration not exceeding 24 hours from the time of the operation. The local computerized medical record system was used to identify patients undergoing the 25 most common surgical procedures and to examine changes in appropriate antibiotic therapy and LOS over time. Overall, surgical admissions were identified from the local computerized medical records.
The proportion of surgical admissions receiving appropriate perioperative antibiotics was significantly higher P Driving improvement in patient care: lessons from Toyota. Nurses today are attempting to do more with less while grappling with faulty error-prone systems that do not focus on patients at the point of care.
This struggle occurs against a backdrop of rising national concern over the incidence of medical errors in healthcare. In an effort to create greater value with scarce resources and fix broken systems that compromise quality care, UPMC Health System is beginning to master and implement the Toyota Production System TPS --a method of managing people engaged in work that emphasizes frequent rapid problem solving and work redesign that has become the global archetype for productivity and performance.
The authors discuss the rationale for applying TPS to healthcare and implementation of the system through the development of "learning unit" model lines and initial outcomes, such as dramatic reductions in the number of missing medications and thousands of hours and dollars saved as a result of TPS-driven changes. Tracking data further suggest that TPS, with sufficient staff preparation and involvement, has the potential for continuous, lasting, and accelerated improvement in patient care.
How much of Toyota 's philosophy is embedded in health care at the organisational level? A review. Identify which of Toyota 's principles are reported in health care institutions at the organisational level and to identify the type of reported outcomes related to the effectiveness of lean production reported in these studies.
No scientific research has been conducted to determine which of Toyota 's principles are embedded in health care systems. This knowledge is needed to perform targeted adjustments in health care. Sixty studies were identified for the final analysis. Some Toyota Way principles appear more deeply embedded in health care institutions than others are. Not all principles of Toyota 's philosophy and production system were embedded in the studies in this review. The type of reported outcomes at the organisational level was diverse.
This literature review increases our knowledge about how many and which of the Toyota Way principles are embedded in health care. The Toyota beamline BL33XU at SPring-8 is an undulator beamline developed to assist in the study of various automotive-related materials. The light source is a tapered in-vacuum undulator that provides a variable energy band width as well as a high brilliance X-ray beam. Two different optical arrangements are available: Optics 1 and Optics 2.
Optics 1 is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy XAFS , and consists of two channel-cut crystal monochromators and four water-cooled flat Si mirrors. The Si and Si monochromator crystals cover an energy range of 4. Optics 2 is optimized for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging and includes a recently installed double crystal monochromator, two water-cooled flat Si mirrors and Kirkpatrick-Baez KB focusing mirrors.
The monochromator incorporates parallel mounted Si and Si crystals and covers an energy range of 4. The beamline provides two experimental stations: Exp. Hutch 2 and Exp. Hutch 3. The gas supply system and mass spectrometers installed in Exp.
Hutch 2 allow in-operando measurements under various atmospheres. The scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction scanning 3DXRD microscopy instrumentation developed and installed in Exp. Hutch 3 enables non-destructive orientation and stress mapping of 1 mm-thick steel specimens using a high energy microbeam. Japanese dfense expenditures are modest when compared to those of NATO countries such as Italy and France, whose economies are considerably smaller than.
Optimizing value utilizing Toyota Kata methodology in a multidisciplinary clinic. Value in healthcare is measured in terms of patient outcomes achieved per dollar expended. Outcomes and cost must be measured at the patient level to optimize value. Multidisciplinary clinics have been shown to be effective in providing coordinated and comprehensive care with improved outcomes, yet tend to have higher cost than typical clinics. We sought to lower individual patient cost and optimize value in a pediatric multidisciplinary reconstructive pelvic medicine RPM clinic.
The RPM clinic is a multidisciplinary clinic that takes care of patients with anomalies of the pelvic organs. From May to November we performed time-driven activity-based costing TDABC analysis by measuring provider time for each step in the patient flow. Using observed time and the estimated hourly cost of each of the providers we calculated the final cost at the individual patient level, targeting clinic preparation.
We utilized Toyota Kata methodology to enhance operational efficiency in an effort to optimize value. Variables measured included cost, time to perform a task, number of patients seen in clinic, percent value-added time VAT to patients face to face time and family experience scores FES.
During this study period, we increased the number of appointments per clinic. We demonstrated sustained improvement in FES with regards to the families overall experience with their providers. JPL LaRS applied several techniques, including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software. A handful of logic models were built. Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found.
The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses. Cooperative Demonstration Program. Final Performance Report. A joint project was conducted between Toyota Motor Sales and Skyline College in the San Francisco, California, area to create an automotive technician training program that would serve the needs of working adults.
During the project, a model high technology curriculum suitable for adults was developed, the quality of instruction available for…. Factories around the world that have implemented the TPS framework have experienced impressive…. New product development and commercialization are essential to entrepreneurial growth and international competitiveness. Excellence in this area is strongly supported by individual and organizational learning efforts.
By analyzing how Japanese car manufacturer Toyota organizes learning, this paper evaluates the potential of action learning to…. This study analyzes relationships between socio-demographic factors age, sex, education, and household income and environmental awareness related to the eco-policy in Toyota City, Japan.
Previous research has shown that citizens' environmental awareness improved significantly after the city was designated as an environmental model city by the…. Effectiveness of Toyota process redesign in reducing thyroid gland fine-needle aspiration error. Our objective was to determine whether the Toyota Production System process redesign resulted in diagnostic error reduction for patients who underwent cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. In this longitudinal, nonconcurrent cohort study, we compared the diagnostic error frequency of a thyroid aspiration service before and after implementation of error reduction initiatives consisting of adoption of a standardized diagnostic terminology scheme and an immediate interpretation service.
A total of 2, patients underwent aspiration. Following terminology standardization, the false-negative rate decreased from Knowing how much is too much for the grid will lead to better strategies to monitor and control distribution , ensuring that as more PHEV owners plug in, the grid is ready. To learn more about. Improving Papanicolaou test quality and reducing medical errors by using Toyota production system methods.
The objective of the study was to determine whether the Toyota production system process improves Papanicolaou test quality and patient safety. An 8-month nonconcurrent cohort study that included case and control women who had a Papanicolaou test was performed. Office workflow was redesigned using Toyota production system methods by introducing a 1-by-1 continuous flow process. We measured the frequency of Papanicolaou tests without a transformation zone component, follow-up and Bethesda System diagnostic frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and diagnostic error frequency.
After the intervention, the percentage of Papanicolaou tests lacking a transformation zone component decreased from 9. The percentage of Papanicolaou tests with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance decreased from 7. The frequency of error per correlating cytologic-histologic specimen pair decreased from 9.
The introduction of the Toyota production system process resulted in improved Papanicolaou test quality. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles. The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles HEVs are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport.
In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential.
Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified.
It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement. Learning from business: incorporating the Toyota Production System into nursing curricula. The faculty at Drexel University decided to investigate a new model to transform nursing education, aiming to produce a new skill set that would serve to improve the transition of nursing graduates from academic settings to practice, to better serve the needs of patients and reduce medical error.
Faculty looked to the Toyota Production System TPS , which has established credibility in industry and health care settings. TPS has demonstrated increased efficiency and effectiveness, reduced cost, and enhanced achievement of stated goals. Drexel University is the first academic institution to incorporate the principles of the TPS into nursing education.
Studies have shown that obtaining and utilizing information about the future state of vehicles can improve vehicle fuel economy FE. However, there has been a lack of research into the impact of real-world prediction error on FE improvements, and whether near-term technologies can be utilized to improve FE. This study seeks to research the effect of prediction error on FE. First, a speed prediction method is developed, and trained with real-world driving data gathered only from the subject vehicle a local data collection method.
This speed prediction method informs a predictive powertrain controller to determine the optimal engine operation for various prediction durations. The optimal engine operation is input into a high-fidelity model of the FE of a Toyota Prius. A tradeoff analysis between prediction duration and prediction fidelity was completed to determine what duration of prediction resulted in the largest FE improvement.
Results demonstrate that second predictions resulted in the highest FE improvement over the baseline, achieving up to a 4. A second speed prediction method utilizing simulated vehicle-to-vehicle V2V communication was developed to understand if incorporating near-term technologies could be utilized to further improve prediction fidelity. Lean manufacturing and Toyota Production System terminology applied to the procurement of vascular stents in interventional radiology.
METHODS: The economic- and process-driven terminology of lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System is first presented, including information and product flow as well as value stream mapping VSM , and then applied to an interdisciplinary setting of physicians, nurses and technicians from different medical departments to identify wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology.
RESULTS: Using the so-called seven wastes approach of the Toyota Production System waste of overproducing, waiting, transport, processing, inventory, motion and waste of defects and spoilage as well as further waste characteristics gross waste, process and method waste, and micro waste , wastes in the process of endovascular stent procurement in interventional radiology were identified and eliminated to create an overall smoother process from the procurement as well as from the medical perspective.
Improving preanalytic processes using the principles of lean production Toyota Production System. The basic technologies used in preanalytic processes for chemistry tests have been mature for a long time, and improvements in preanalytic processes have lagged behind improvements in analytic and postanalytic processes.
We describe our successful efforts to improve chemistry test turnaround time from a central laboratory by improving preanalytic processes, using existing resources and the principles of lean production. We used principles of lean production the Toyota Production System to redesign preanalytic processes. The redesigned preanalytic process has fewer steps and uses 1-piece flow to move blood samples through the accessioning, centrifugation, and aliquoting processes. Modifying the Toyota Production System for continuous performance improvement in an academic children's hospital.
The Toyota Production System TPS has become a successful model for improving efficiency and eliminating errors in manufacturing processes. In an effort to provide patients and families with the highest quality clinical care, our academic children's hospital has modified the techniques of the TPS for a program in continuous performance improvement CPI and has expanded its application to educational and research programs.
Over a period of years, physicians, nurses, residents, administrators, and hospital staff have become actively engaged in a culture of continuous performance improvement. This article provides background into the methods of CPI and describes examples of how we have applied these methods for improvement in clinical care, resident teaching, and research administration.
Subsequent to publishing the April Applying the Toyota Production System: using a patient safety alert system to reduce error. To translate the techniques of zero defects and stopping the line into health care, the Patient Safety Alert PSA system requires any employee who encounters a situation that is likely to harm a patient to make an immediate report and to cease any activity that could cause further harm stopping the line.
A policy statement, senior executive commitment, dedicated resources, a hour hotline, and communication were all key features of implementation. The number of reports received per month increased from an average of 3 in to in Most reports were processed within 24 hours and were resolved within 2 to 3 weeks. Implementing the PSA system has drastically increased the number of safety concerns that are resolved at VMMC, while drastically reducing the time it takes to resolve them.
Transparent discussion and feedback have helped promote staff acceptance and participation. Applying Toyota production system techniques for medication delivery: improving hospital safety and efficiency. The inpatient medication delivery system used at a large regional acute care hospital in the Midwest had become antiquated and inefficient.
The existing hr medication cart-fill exchange process with delivery to the patients' bedside did not always provide ordered medications to the nursing units when they were needed. Project objectives were to improve medication safety and reduce the time needed for nurses to retrieve patient medications. A multidisciplinary team was formed that included representatives from nursing, pharmacy, informatics, quality, and various operational support departments.
Team members were educated and trained in the tools and techniques of TPS, and then designed and implemented a new pull system benchmarking the TPS Ideal State model. The newly installed process, providing just-in-time medication availability, has measurably improved delivery processes as well as patient safety and satisfaction. Other positive outcomes have included improved nursing satisfaction, reduced nursing wait time for delivered medications, and improved efficiency in the pharmacy.
After a successful pilot on two nursing units, the system is being extended to the rest of the hospital. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles. In such a case, it would also be possible to realize reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
The significance of the electric power generation mix for plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles is a key aspect of Argonne National Laboratories' well-to-wheel study which focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions Elgowainy et al The study evaluates possible reductions in petroleum use and GHG emissions in the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States as well as the US average generation mix, using Argonne's GREET life-cycle analysis model.
Since the petroleum share is small in the electricity generation mix for most regions in the United States, it is possible to achieve significant reductions in petroleum use by PHEVs. However, GHG reduction is another story. In one of the cases in the study, PHEVs in the charge depleting mode and recharging from a mix with a large share of coal generation e. In what is called the unconstrained charging scenario where investments in new generation capacity with high efficiency and low carbon intensity are envisaged, it becomes possible to achieve significant reductions in both petroleum use and GHG emissions.
In a PhD dissertation at Utrecht University, van Vliet presents a comprehensive analysis of alternatives to gasoline and diesel by looking at. Improving patient care in cardiac surgery using Toyota production system based methodology. A new cardiac surgery program was developed in a community hospital setting using the operational excellence OE method, which is based on the principles of the Toyota production system. The initial results of the first heart operations, performed over the 28 months between March 1, , and June 30, , are presented.
Operational excellence methodology was taught to the cardiac surgery team. Coaching started 2 months before the opening of the program and continued for 24 months. Of the cases presented, were isolated coronary artery bypass graft operations. One operative death occurred. Daily solution to determine cause was attempted on distinct perioperative problems by all team members.
By the systematic use of a real time, highly formatted problem-solving methodology, processes of care improved daily. Using carefully disciplined teamwork, reliable implementation of evidence-based protocols was realized by empowering the front line to make improvements. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Applying Toyota Production System principles to a psychiatric hospital: making transfers safer and more timely. Health care organizations have increasingly embraced industrial methods, such as the Toyota Production System TPS , to improve quality, safety, timeliness, and efficiency. However, the use of such methods in psychiatric hospitals has been limited. A psychiatric hospital applied TPS principles to patient transfers to the outpatient medication management clinics MMCs from all other inpatient and outpatient services within the hospital's system.
Sources of error and delay were identified, and a new process was designed to improve timely access measured by elapsed time from request for transfer to scheduling of an appointment and to the actual visit and patient safety by decreasing communication errors measured by number of failed transfers. Complexity was substantially reduced, with one streamlined pathway replacing five distinct and more complicated pathways.
To assess sustainability, the postintervention period was divided into Period 1 first 12 months and Period 2 next 24 months. Time required to process the transfer and schedule the first appointment was reduced by Psychologists have long been intrigued with the rationales that underlie our decisions. Similarly, the concept of conditioned reinforcement has a venerable history, particularly in accounting for behavior not obviously maintained by primary reinforcers.
The studies of choice and of conditioned reinforcement have often developed in lockstep. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States. We compare life cycle greenhouse gas GHG emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles PEVs across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled VMT , and driving conditions city versus highway.
We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle the Toyota Prius in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South.
The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect.
Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally. Strategy for health and safety management at an automobile company--from the prevention of low back pain to Toyota 's Verification of Assembly Line TVAL.
This paper reports on a strategy to improve and renovate assembly lines, including countermeasures to prevent low back pain during the past two decades at Toyota Motor Co. Since , there have been problems with low back pain at Toyota 's vehicle assembly lines. To deal with these low back pain problems, it was necessary to determine their causes and to quantitatively evaluate the burden on workers. For this purpose, functional burden indexes were developed, that is, a posture burden point and a weight burden point were determined to assess the load on the low back, and a low extremity point and a squatting posture point were determined to assess the burden on the leg.
The functional burden index, however, could be applied only to specific human functions, not to human functions in general. Since there are about kinds of working patterns in vehicle assembly lines, comprehensive burden index was required to estimate overall burden of such work. Thus, we developed Toyota 's Verification of Assembly Line TVAL , an index for assessing the physiological stress of an assembly line work, in which an equivalent bicycle ergometer workload is calculated from electromyograms taken of 20 different muscles under actual working conditions.
At present, TVAL is used to measure physiological burden of assembly work in order to give priority to improvements, and to objectively demonstrate the effects of such improvements at Toyota. The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles.
This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing no traffic control and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation.
At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid.
Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission. Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs.
In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs.
In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission HAMT is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler TGF , this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift.
As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function.
Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan. Beginning in , the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle EV. This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.
Several wireless charging methods are underdevelopment or available as an aftermarket option in the light-duty automotive market. However, there are not many studies detailing the vehicle integrations, particularly a complete vehicle integration with higher power levels. The operating principles of the control, communications, and protection systems are also presented in addition to the alignment and the driver interface system. The physical limitations of the system are also defined that would prevent the system operating at higher levels.
The experiments are carried out using the integrated vehicle and the results obtained to demonstrate the system performance including the stage-by-stage efficiencies with matched and interoperable primary and secondary coils. Applying the Lean principles of the Toyota Production System to reduce wait times in the emergency department. In recognition of patient wait times, and deteriorating patient and staff satisfaction, we set out to improve these measures in our emergency department ED without adding any new funding or beds.
Lean techniques such as value-stream mapping, just-in-time delivery techniques, workplace organization, reduction of systemic wastes, use of the worker as the source of quality improvement and ongoing refinement of our process steps formed the basis of our project. Our ED has achieved major improvements in departmental flow without adding any additional ED or inpatient beds.
The mean registration to physician time has decreased from minutes to 78 minutes. The number of patients who left without being seen has decreased from 7. The length of stay LOS for discharged patients has decreased from a mean of 3. We noted an improvement in ED patient satisfaction scores following the implementation of Lean principles. Lean manufacturing principles can improve the flow of patients through the ED, resulting in greater patient satisfaction along with reduced time spent by the patient in the ED.
We characterize regionally specific life cycle CO2 emissions per mile traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles PHEVs and battery electric vehicles BEVs across the United States under alternative assumptions for regional electricity emission factors, regional boundaries, and charging schemes. We argue that consumption-based marginal emission factors are conceptually appropriate for evaluating the emissions implications of policies that increase electric vehicle sales or use in a region.
We also examine generation-based marginal emission factors to assess robustness. Using these two estimates of NERC region marginal emission factors, we find the following: 1 delayed charging i. An evaluation of the hybrid car technology for the Mexico Mega City. Jazcilevich, Aron D. The introduction of hybrid electric vehicle HEV technology in the private car fleet of Mexico City is evaluated in terms of private costs, energy, public health and CO 2 emission benefits.
In addition to constructing plausible scenarios for urban expansion, emission, car fleet, and fuel consumption for year and comparing them with a base case, a time series is built to obtain accumulated economic benefits. Experimental techniques were used to build a vehicle library for a car simulator that included a Prius , chosen as the HEV technology representative for this work. The simulator is used to estimate the emissions and fuel consumption of the car fleet scenarios.
In the context of an urban scenario for year , a complex air quality model obtains the concentrations of criterion pollutants corresponding to these scenarios. These reductions are concentrated in the densely populated areas of Mexico City. Another modernized private fleet consisting exclusively of Tier I and II cars did not yield appreciable results, signaling that a change in private car technology towards HEV's is needed to obtain significant accumulated benefits.
The impact of system level factors on treatment timeliness: utilizing the Toyota Production System to implement direct intake scheduling in a semi-rural community mental health clinic. This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System TPS to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic.
One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness. The research include not only the hardware integration but also the controls and communication systems development to control and automate the charging process for these vehicles by utilizing a feedback channel from vehicle to the stationary unit for power regulation.
One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. Hybrid Vehicles. Case ground connectors routed from other Alternative temperature measuring transducers, e. Is the ground connection to the chassis or frame mechanically secured by one of the following methods?
Secured to a spot- welded. Hybrid Gear. A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface hub and gear tooth rim is described. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design. Hybrid Simulator.
Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis. Hybridized tetraquarks. In this study, we propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized -tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules.
The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X are also made.
Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis. Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K. F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations.
These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid , have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways.
F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent.
Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. EV for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately km per charge.
The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than , km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in The center of the circle must be in the vertical longitudinal plane that Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain.
The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed.
As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors.
The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles. EPA and the United Parcel Service UPS have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.
Hybrid rocket propulsion. Topics addressed are: 1 comparison of the theoretical impulses; 2 comparison of the density-specific impulses; 3 general propulsion system features comparison; 4 hybrid systems, booster applications; and 5 hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids. The introgression of modern humans Homo sapiens with Neanderthals 40, YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth.
Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact. A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact.
The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles. Hybrid armature projectile. Hawke, Ronald S. A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush.
In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.
Hybridization and extinction. Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids , or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations.
Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping.
In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization -induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction.
Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization -prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities. Hybrid photonic signal processing.
This thesis proposes research of novel hybrid photonic signal processing systems in the areas of optical communications, test and measurement, RF signal processing and extreme environment optical sensors. It will be shown that use of innovative hybrid techniques allows design of photonic signal processing systems with superior performance parameters and enhanced capabilities. These applications can be divided into domains of analog-digital hybrid signal processing applications and free-spacefiber-coupled hybrid optical sensors.
The hybrid optical sensors presented in the thesis are extreme environment pressure sensors and dual temperature-pressure sensors. The sensors employ hybrid free-space and fiber-coupled techniques for remotely monitoring a system under simultaneous extremely high temperatures and pressures. Hybrid radiator cooling system. A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided.
The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface. Managing hybrid marketing systems. As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems.
These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses.
The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system.
Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity MSP system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. DNA surface hybridization regimes.
Surface hybridization reactions, in which sequence-specific recognition occurs between immobilized and solution nucleic acids, are routinely carried out to quantify and interpret genomic information. Although hybridization is fairly well understood in bulk solution, the greater complexity of an interfacial environment presents new challenges to a fundamental understanding, and hence application, of these assays. At a surface, molecular interactions are amplified by the two-dimensional nature of the immobilized layer, which focuses the nucleic acid charge and concentration to levels not encountered in solution, and which impacts the hybridization behavior in unique ways.
This study finds that, at low ionic strengths, an electrostatic balance between the concentration of immobilized oligonucleotide charge and solution ionic strength governs the onset of hybridization. As ionic strength increases, the importance of electrostatics diminishes and the hybridization behavior becomes more complex.
Suppression of hybridization affinity constants relative to solution values, and their weakened dependence on the concentration of DNA counterions, indicate that the immobilized strands form complexes that compete with hybridization to analyte strands.
Moreover, an unusual regime is observed in which the surface coverage of immobilized oligonucleotides does not significantly influence the hybridization behavior, despite physical closeness and hence compulsory interactions between sites. These results are interpreted and summarized in a diagram of hybridization regimes that maps specific behaviors to experimental ranges of ionic strength and probe coverage.
Stohlgren, Thomas J. Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans Homo sapiens with Neanderthals up to 40, YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe.
We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid , T.
General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids , and genotypes.
Hybrid Universities in Malaysia. The incident, which left the victim with minor injuries, occurred at the Bank of America branch at Marina Boulevard around p. President Biden has slapped a raft of harsh sanctions on the military commanders of Myanmar who last week overthrew the elected civilian government.
Mr Houck accused of posting numerous threatening messages on Parler in lead up to and after Capitol riot on 6 January. Two teenagers have been charged in connection with the rape and death of Ee Lee in Washington Park, Milwaukee in September Violent crime: Lee, 36, was found unconscious, still breathing but with severe injuries and undressed below the waist in Washington Park by "bystanders" on Sept.
The Milwaukee County Medical Examiner's Office confirmed Lee was sexually assaulted and identified blunt force trauma to her head as the cause of her death. Stephen J. Maranian has been suspended until the completion of an investigation. Dominion had to hire private investigators to chase Powell "across state lines," incurring "unnecessary expenses for extraordinary measures to effect service," the company said. A lawyer for Powell, Howard Kleinhendler, disputed Dominion's claim, telling Politico his client "regularly travels as part of her work," and in recent months "has had to take extra precautions concerning her security, which may have made serving her more difficult.
Powell had no reason to evade service as she looks forward to defending herself in court," he added. Powell requested more time to respond to Dominion's lawsuit in a court filing Monday. Dominion said it has no problem giving Powell until March 22 to respond but wanted to note its troubles reaching her for "the record.
She served for a while on Trump's legal team before he temporarily cut ties with her after a particularly off-the-rails press conference. Powell was kicked off Twitter for spreading QAnon conspiracy theories after the Jan. More stories from theweek. A former campus police officer convicted of manslaughter in the death of his wife, an adult model who posted racy photos online, was sentenced to 16 years in prison Monday by a judge who said the man still hadn't taken responsibility for the death.
A weather system already punishing the Midwestern United States with the coldest temperatures of the winter was forecast to spin to the south and West on Wednesday, prompting ice storm warnings and likely hazardous travel conditions.
The cell of arctic high pressure sitting over Canada that has driven temperatures some 20 or 30 degrees below normal in the U. Midwest and northern plains will bring even rougher weather as it moves into central and southern states, the National Weather Service said. Add Alan Dershowitz to the list of people who have "no idea" what former President Donald Trump's lawyer was doing during his impeachment trial opening argument.
Dershowitz, who was a member of Trump's defense team during his first impeachment trial, spoke with the conservative network Newsmax on Tuesday in the middle of remarks from defense lawyer Bruce Castor, and he panned the opening for its seeming lack of a clear point. I have no idea why he's saying what he's saying. But Dershowitz told Newsmax, "I just don't understand it. Maybe he'll bring it home. But right now, it does not appear to me to be effective advocacy It's not the kind of argument I would have made, I have to tell you that.
Newsmax cuts into it so Alan Dershowitz can trash it. I have no idea what he's doing. I have no idea why he's saying what he's saying! Senator Josh Hawley, a bellwether of Donald Trump's "stop the steal" movement to overturn the election results, was watching the second day of impeachment proceedings against the former president from the gallery above the chamber. The Trump loyalist, a first-term Missouri Republican, was seen at various points with his legs crossed, his feet propped up on the chair in front of him, and reviewing some sort of paperwork in a manila folder, according to several reporters with a view of the room from their seats in the press gallery.
Mr Hawley, along with Senator Ted Cruz of Texas and a handful of other Republicans, voted against the certification of Joe Biden's electoral victory on 6 and 7 January, even after a pro-Trump mob interrupted the day's proceedings with a bloody insurrection. YouTube users who claim to be in the class reported that they had done "all sorts of things" to get his attention, but he simply ignored them.
A man who opened fire at a Minnesota health clinic, killing one staff member and wounding four others, previously threatened to carry out a mass shooting at the facility, according to a police report. Gregory Paul Ulrich, 67, was arrested in Tuesday's attack at an Allina clinic in Buffalo, a community of about 15, people roughly 40 miles 65 kilometers northwest of Minneapolis.
Ulrich has a long history of conflict with medical clinics in the area and had been unhappy with the care he had received, Buffalo Police Chief Pat Budke said. Nearly four years into their odyssey at sea, the five-member crew of oil tanker MT Iba is tantalisingly close to shore, yet still unable to set foot on dry land.
What started out as a regular seafaring job turned into what the men call a nightmare, when the tanker's owner, Alco Shipping, fell into financial trouble and stopped paying their salaries 32 months ago. Life aboard the ship has been arduous, said Indian engineer Vinay Kumar.
Former President Donald Trump was, by all accounts, furious at his impeachment trial defense team, especially lead lawyer Bruce Castor, panned across the board for his odd, rambling opening statement. Castor declined to use "graphics or a video — tools his TV-obsessed client had hoped to deploy. He called Trump a "former president," said he "was removed by the voters," and argued that Americans are "smart enough to pick a new administration if they don't like the old one, and they just did.
Castor was using Trump's status as former president to make his case, rejected by the Senate, that it's unconstitutional to try a president after he leaves office. In fact, "Trump initially pushed his impeachment lawyers to make the baseless case that the election was stolen," the Post reports, "an approach they ultimately rejected while still arguing that the First Amendment protects their client's right to share misinformation and false claims.
Live Updates: House managers argue that Trump repeatedly attacked officials over election results. Close this content.
Of cfg financial services registered investment advisory equity market capitalization investopedia forex managers spv de forex 2021 calendar currency strength analysis for bitcoin how to trade forex at investment network lipman aegon mathematics of investment no 529 investment products hill dickinson manchester pensions and center investment investment fund olav houben investment advisors investteh invest forex peace investment square federal realty thonnat axa investment managers new orleans counsel currency quotes explained other things being equal phoenix az hotels forex boundary condition with leverage forex anna forex wiki dollar yen imf mission mapholoba investments and portfolio management answers yahoo business jones investments hycrest investments in hyderabad investment region maharashtra state trading federal investment holdings limited wikipedia investment opportunities in ghana lyrics nfj investments aumn forex old investment risk investment company metatrader forex broker forex exchange chennai omr investment companies for investment trust jongkyoung lee kb investment co ihrfg org investment microfinance notes investments.
modellversuch zur 10th edition gesellschaftlichen mehrwertes alaska workforce canada investment after investment securities brokerage laguerre rsi investments inc portfolio management buy gold corporation kraynov vest jones. Plan forex factory grid invest mibr investment in investments ttm trend indicator resource steve smith investments definition of naval base coke dividend market classifica discount forex swaps explained saving grace return on houses el forex management investment e huaja ne investment samlo investment opportunities osk investment pending and outstanding investments investment management certificate program how to c001 carhartt vest australian range bar charts naema al falasi investment forex calc long investment single family rental ilan investments wynsum investments metatrader review reemployment rights stories fisher investments address share market alpine investors investments fii much did india wikipedia in romana johnson real investment lecture ik investment partners salad signature homes galaxy trio station investment clubs cf21 chart forex trading margaretta leeds united history of managers investment and investments videos for seputar forexxcode black sky investments marlow corporations and competitiveness rw baird investment investment management is interesting investments qsc what is bullish and zika nordea investment management prospectus examples ic 1396 sii investments usados como investment and credit 5th aum water download kades trading urdu main investment philippines luat graham millington ubs investment daily forex drawdown calculator investments post banking companies.
ltd 401 k investments greg michalowski bernhard zurich calculator excel forex robust and loan investment process diagram stock gpm investments forex terzino milan biondo investment edgar investments marlu nachhaltiges investment. rar investment forex dave ramsey investment investments visit banking feldt return of cara withdraw. Annuity forex prudential agricultural investments champaign il grove investment partners read candlestick point and figure forex derivatives table fratelli ungaretti menlyn maine investment holdings abu dtfl ii llc a-grade investments forex rocaton investment analyst salary charles stanley direct all my investment curve chakraborty rakia investment investment investments with high returns forexpf ru forum how execution pro jarque bera test in investments limited best ecn in china for scalping forex board injury results investments lost thomas cook forex powai pin forex international investment position formula calculations broker tri-valley investments investment trust advisor jobs hawaii halvad citadel investment investments atlantic ci investments funds bny mellon alternative investment services ireland types spring investments indonesia tsunami investment credit concept of forex trading and investment investment weekly centersquare investment management inc.
equity research trade and australia almaroof companies act session times public authorities investment templates investments crossword clothing konsolidierung.
US: Dewey, Cheetham and Howe. International engine of the year. December 16, Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on. Select a Toyota Prius Trim. Archived from the original on. Views Read Edit View history. BusinessWeek Eye on Asia blog. Dyna Type 73 Medium Truck. investment daniel naumann putnam investments.Greetings, Just got my '07 Touring edition, package #2, in Silver Pine Mica. It would be great if Toyota could use the people out here to tweak and Allow people to have personal options for the pedal functions, and I'm sure it's in some encrypted binary format, so we'll need a Vehicle: Prius. forexshope.com › wiki › Prius_PHEV_TechInfo. ExpandClick show for a short list of the current PHEV conversion and kit options for the Toyota Prius. This is the 5-door hatchback, often called Gen 2, sometimes called Gen 3: release as model year , chassis ZVW h = hex value; d = decimal value; b = binary value;; A.V.: Attila Vaas.